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ENLIGHTENED JUDGES A STRATEGY TO REALIZE WORLD CLASS MODERN JUDICIARY

Enlightened Judges

Oleh Adeng Septi Irawan, S.H.[1]

  1. A.Background of the problem

Times have begun to change and develop following the direction of advances in technology and information. In the past, the people of Indonesia still remember that just to take care of population documents, people had to go to the population and civil registry office several times. In fact, brokering practices were not uncommon at that time. However, now everything has changed using digital concepts including the management of population documents. This, of course, is a sign that the development of digital technology has brought positive changes and influences on government services to the community.

In an online article mentioned, Microsoft Co-founder Bill Gates has predicted about human life in the coming years, where there will be more to dive into the digital world. The founder of Microsoft is of the view that human life will be completely digital. In fact, after the Covid-19 pandemic was over, Bill Gates saw such rapid developments, he gave an example, how people are now shopping for groceries online or the transition from video chat to online meetings. Then, Bill Gates predicts that the Metaverse will change habits in the world of work which will also turn digital.[2]

Mentioned by an Advocate of Jamaican nationality from the United States named Robert Sutherland who said that the factors that caused social or community change were the existence of innovations or new discoveries, and renewals. "New inventions or inventions, social and cultural adaptation or adjustment, as well as adoption of the use of new inventions." [3] So it is clear here that new discoveries in the form of digital technology and the development of social needs have changed the mindset of the Indonesian people today. This means that social and cultural conditions have forced the Indonesian people to get used to using digital technology today.

Initially, the concept of information technology-based governance was applied by the Government of Indonesia. Where, currently the information technology (IT) revolution provides an opportunity for the government to innovate the development of the state apparatus through the application of the Electronic-Based Government System (SPBE) or E-Government, namely government administration that utilizes ICT to provide services to government agencies, state civil servants. , business people, the community and other parties. SPBE provides opportunities to encourage and realize open, participatory, innovative and accountable governance, increase collaboration between government agencies in carrying out government affairs and tasks to achieve common goals, improve the quality and reach of public services to the wider community, and reduce the level of abuse of authority. in the form of collusion, corruption, and nepotism through the implementation of an electronic-based public complaint and supervision system.

Not to forget, the Supreme Court has also begun to create a variety of new breakthroughs that are continuously launched in order to provide the best quality service to people seeking justice. Through the 2010-2035 Supreme Court Judicial Reform Blueprint, various things were created that support public service. Because as a government agency, the Supreme Court carries out the mandate that service is the main thing for the community. Disclosure of information is very much needed to support bureaucratic reform of judicial institutions in Indonesia, in the 2010-2035 Supreme Court Judicial Reform Blueprint it is stated that one of the ideal judicial indicators is a modern judiciary based on integrated information technology.[4] The existence of the word “Integrated” arises from the problem that during the preparation of the blueprint, which was around before 2010, the Supreme Court realized that there was no comprehensive and integrated information technology management.

In comparison, in Australia, online dispute resolution has been implemented, where litigants can resolve their disputes online. Likewise, in the United States since 1999, Public Access to Electronic Records (PACER) has been initiated, there is also a Case Management and Electronic Case Files (CM/ECF) system, and various uses of information technology to support other judicial tasks. Through the use of information technology in serving the justice-seeking community, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia is now also starting to be able to align its service quality with the United States Supreme Court, British Supreme Court, and Singaporean Supreme Court, and other developed countries.

However, it is not easy to realize digitalization within the Supreme Court, which incidentally has not all of the judges opened their eyes and understood the development of information and communication technology for modern courts. Not to mention, not all Indonesian people are capable and capable of using information and communication technology in government services. Of course, this is a steep path for some judges who are already aware of the importance of the development of Information and Communication Technology for judicial services. They will always experience obstacles and challenges in the context of realizing a modern justice based on information and communication technology. So, at this time a judge is not only required to be professional in his work. However, it is also necessary to open our eyes to respond to the development of digital technology which is growing quite rapidly.

In response to this, this paper tries to provide an explanation of the concept of enlightened judges combined with the professionalism of judges in realizing a world-class modern judiciary. The aim is that in this modern era, judges can become agents of change within the scope of modern courts to realize court excellence.

  1. B.Formulation of the problem

From the background above, there are at least some problems that need to be studied in this paper, namely:

  1. What is the meaning of professionalism of judges and enlightened judges in carrying out their main duties and functions as law enforcement officers?
  2. What is the form and concept of world-class modern justice?
  3. How is the concept of enlightened judges integrated with the professionalism of judges in realizing a world-class modern judiciary?

  1. C.Discussion
    1. 1.Professionalism of Judges as Law Enforcement Officials

The meaning of professionalism in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) is quality, quality, and behavior which are the characteristics of a profession or professional person. Professionalism is generally determined and influenced by a person's ability to do a job..[5]

According to Sondang P. Siagian (Academics), professionalism is defined as a reliability in carrying out tasks so that they are carried out with high quality, on time, carefully, and with procedures that are easily understood and followed by customers. The formation of a professional apparatus according to the opinion above requires knowledge and skills in carrying out services to customers (community). In this case it can be interpreted that the skills and abilities of the apparatus reflect the direction and goals to be achieved by an organization. If an organization seeks to provide excellent service, the organization bases professionalism on the goals to be achieved.[6]

This professionalism is measured in terms of speed in carrying out functions and refers to simplified procedures. According to this opinion, the concept of professionalism in the apparatus is seen from the perspective of:

  1. Creativity (creativity).
  2. Innovation (innovation)
  3. Responsiveness (responsiveness)

In principle, the task of Judges is to carry out judicial functions in accordance with the provisions of applicable regulations. In carrying out this judicial function, it is the duty of the judge to uphold law and justice. In this regard, in making a decision, the judge must pay attention to three very important things, namely justice (gerechtigheit), certainty (rechsecherheit), and expediency (zwachmatigheit).[7] As mentioned by Sudikno Mertokusumo, the three principles must be implemented in a compromise manner, namely by applying all three in a balanced or proportional manner.[8] So that the decision does not cause chaos or unrest for the community, especially for justice seekers.

The judge as the main organ in a court and as the executor of judicial power who is considered to understand the law to be able to receive, examine, and adjudicate a case, is in accordance with Article 10 paragraph (1) of Law Number 48 of 2009 concerning Judicial Power, so that it is obligatory The law is for judges to be able to find the law, both through written and unwritten law to decide a case based on the law as a wise and responsible person.[9]

The professionalism of judges as law enforcement officers within the scope of the judiciary is an absolute must. Because the judge is the last gate of the guardian of justice in this country. Judges are required not only to master formal and material law. However, it is also important to have high integrity and wisdom in deciding any case given to him. The title of the representative of God pinned to a judge is not just an ordinary slogan, it is related to scientific and moral responsibilities in the context of creating competent judges who have high capabilities and integrity.

  1. 2.Strategy Based Enlightened Judges

The development of a very dynamic era and the great influence of globalization have made the institution of the Supreme Court and the Judicial Body under it participate in synergy with the government in an effort to generate constructive ideas, ideas, and innovations in line with the times itself. Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Indonesia who is also the former Chairman of the Constitutional Court, Prof. Dr. Jimly Asshiddiqie, S.H. Quoted from the legalonline.com page, he once said in a special interview, that there are four main elements to changing the appearance of the court from conventional to modern. One element that is quite unique is what he calls enlightened judges. According to him, the elements of modern justice, among others, first are enlightened judges (enlightened judges). The second element is modern administrative management. Third, the development of human resources or staff. And the fourth element, the legal information system.[10]

The Judges here mean those who have experienced enlightenment, which enlightenment is not only in terms of integrity and intellectuality, but also the requirements of a good judge included in it. “The enlightenment process doesn't have to wait for everyone to be good, just start small. Most importantly there is enlightenment. Most importantly, he has a desire to overhaul the judiciary. These dependent judges should be in every court. It doesn't take many judges, one person is enough. Just one is enough. It means starting from one, not just one. Because it is impossible to work alone to overhaul a judiciary. No need for a leader. But that person must have leadership skills that can move the people in the court and even the leadership. If people have power it will be much easier.” The former Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court said in an interview session.

Furthermore, he revealed that whoever the judge could be, the most important thing was to have leadership skills. Leadership has nothing to do with position and the most important thing is that the person has the ability to influence people, move people. So, in essence, an enlightened judge must be functional to change his own environment. An enlightened judge will become a dynamic agent who is successful in building a digital work mindset based on information and communication technology, provided that it is carried out continuously and never gives up. Like a new, more modern system with various types of menus, of course it will make judges who still think old-fashioned to be confused, because they have not mastered and are proficient in using digital technology.

Then next, is modern administrative management, which is an important part of a modern judiciary, namely as a supporting unit (supporting system). Basically, administration is an important instrument that can help the process of achieving organizational goals or not. Then next is the development of professional human resources or staff through integrated education and training management based on information and communication technology which is in line with the professionalism of a judicial apparatus continuously and measurably. Lastly, namely a digital and modern-based legal information system by utilizing the latest technology in line with applicable legal and regulatory services.

If everything has been built, starting from a good database, good administration, good employees, and easily accessible information systems. So the judge as an agent of change must change his work climate, namely by always learning and continuing to learn to see every dynamic legal development accompanied by additional knowledge of modern digital technology.

  1. 3.A World-Class Modern Form of Justice

More or less in 1997, Clayton M. Christensen (Academy and Business Consultant from the United States) introduced a theory known as disruption. The word disruption has become popular because it moves in line with the emergence and development of information technology applications and changes the usual form of entrepreneurship into start-ups. This word shifted from the term known after the world war, namely "destruction" which was introduced by Joseph Schumpeter (Former Minister of Finance of Austria Germany).[11] In this case, the disruption in the legal field is no exception. The world today is facing the phenomenon of disruption (disruption), a situation where the movement of the industrial world or job competition is no longer linear. The changes are very fast, fundamentally by ruffling the patterns of the old world order to create a new world order.

Cicero (ancient Roman philosopher) once said Ubi Societas Ibi Ius which means law grows and develops in society. Then, about 10 years ago, there was an innovation Legal start-up as many as 20 service providers in the world. And now the legal service provider has grown between 600-1,200 in the world. About 2/3 of legal start-ups are from the United States.

The development of legal start-ups, of course, relies on artificial intelligence technology or artificial intelligence technology. Efforts to give birth to legal robots are not only massive in the United States, Europe, India, and several other countries. Indonesia since the last few years has begun to enter a new era in the legal world by developing Legal Tech and Regulatory Technology. As information released by Techinasia that on September 18 2017, there were six local start-ups working in the field of regtech and legaltech in the country to form the Indonesian Regtech and Legaltech Association or abbreviated as IRLA. The six start-ups include LegalGo, Pop Legal, Startup Legal Clinic, Lawble, PrivyID, and Eclis.id.

e-Court or electronic administration and trial is a service for registered users for online case registration, obtaining online court fee estimates, online payments, summons made by electronic channel, and trials conducted electronically.[12] e-Court is an innovation within the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia in the field of judicial system information technology. e-Court has been effective since the issuance of Supreme Court Regulation (Perma) Number 1 of 2019 concerning Electronic Case Administration and Trial by the Supreme Court which replaces and revokes the Regulation of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia (Perma) Number 3 of 2018 concerning Electronic Case Administration which is a the forerunner of the birth of electronic-based justice within the Supreme Court. which was followed by the Decree of the chairman of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia Number 129/SK/KMA/SK/VIII/2019 concerning Technical Instructions for the Administration of Cases and Trials in Courts Electronically.[13]

The existence of e-Court is a new face for the implementation of modern justice which is one of the prerequisites in achieving the Supreme Court's vision, namely "Creating a Supreme Judicial Body." So, this is where the real manifestation of the change itself is. It is a necessity if the progress of the times is followed by changes in public services in a judicial environment based on modern justice. In terms of service, it must always be up to date, in providing convenience and comfort to the people seeking justice. The era of the development of Science and Technology (IPTEK) in the community must also be affiliated with the Supreme Court. Because, justice-seeking communities need judicial services that are up to date, in this case, modern following the trends of the times

Through e-litigation services supported by e-court services with 3 (three) main menus, namely: electronic case registration (e-filling), electronic down payment of court fees (e-payment), and delivery of notices and court summons electronically (e-summons), the Supreme Court has opened the way for transparency and accountability related to the trial process and mechanism as widely as possible to the public, especially to people seeking justice. In fact, the products of the trial, in the form of: decisions and stipulations, can be easily accessed by people seeking justice through the Case Search Information System (SIPP) service and the Supreme Court Decision Directory service which has been integrated into one database server.

Moreover, the development of a more massive e-Court and structure has changed the conceptual order in ancient courts (in the past) into modern courts. The parties to the litigation no longer need to come often to the Court, only at certain moments the parties come. E-Litigation with an electronic model of proceedings has even developed quite rapidly with an audio-visual model that allows parties to use audio-visual in order to obtain services in court. It's a fairly rapid change in the world of justice in the current era, everything can be done online without having to go to the courthouse.

From here, the stigma of a world-class modern judiciary was born because of the convenience in digital-based judicial services with a modern and structured concept. Not only that, there are many digital technology developments that have been built by the Supreme Court, ranging from the Personnel Information System (Sikep), National Data Communication (Komdanas), SIMARI, e-Sadewa, e-Bima, website monitoring, and so on. Not to mention that 4 (four) judicial circles under the Supreme Court are also competing in realizing digital-based services by creating various types of applications that support performance both internally and externally. In addition, in the current era, the four courts under the Supreme Court are in the process of maintaining the Accreditation of Quality Assurance (APM) and Integrity Zone (ZI) predicate towards a Corruption Free Area (WBK) and a Clean and Serving Bureaucratic Area (WBBM).

In scheduling reforms, the Supreme Court refers to the Blueprint for Judicial Reform 2010-2035, where the Blueprint was prepared using the Framework of Court Excellence approach. The will to realize a superior judiciary does not only occur in Indonesia. The international world also wants it. Therefore, courts in various parts of the world then meet, make agreements, and apply an international standard for administering the justice system. This standard is known as the International Framework for Court Excellence. The International Framework for Court Excellence is a quality management system designed to help courts improve their performance. This system is a comprehensive approach to achieve a superior court based on digital technology.[14]

  1. 4.Integrated Combination of Enlightened Judges and Professionalism of Judges A Strategy to Realize World-Class Modern Judiciary

Indonesia as a state of law, the development of law in each of its elements must "support" or provide support for the advancement of information technology. In principle, the development goal in the industrial era 4.0 is the empowerment of information and communication technology resources that are increasingly sophisticated and rapidly. Therefore, regulations or legal regulations must also be dynamic in seeing the development of information and communication technology. Changes in regulations are a necessity in order to support modern justice.

In its development, information technology in the justice system in Indonesia can change in a matter of months, days, or even hours. Update after update is always given in order to improve the user experience for justice seekers. With these rapid changes, of course, it must be balanced with a quick and responsive response by all levels of the court apparatus, especially judges who in fact are the spearhead of the judiciary.

SIPP (Case Tracing Information System) is a web-based application intended for administration and tracking of case data at every level of the judiciary. This technology-based information service is in the form of recording complete information regarding Cases (Stage of Cases, Case Status, Case Fees, Session Schedule, Statistics and Case History). All information can be accessed by the public easily, quickly, and in real time.

The presence of the E-court which later became the gateway for the birth of an electronic litigation system (E-litigation) aims to build a digital legal culture. These innovations are a follow-up to Supreme Court Regulation (Perma) Number 3 of 2018 concerning Electronic Court Case Administration. The issuance of this regulation is in response to the aspirations of the community regarding the modernization of the administration of justice

The Renaissance or the enlightenment period that occurred around the 15th-16th century AD in Europe, made several countries on this continent experience a period of enlightenment caused by the upheaval of disease outbreaks, economic crises, political crises, and the crisis of thought of the Dark Ages (Dark Ages). Renaissance literally comes from French which means rebirth. This period marked the rebirth of civilization and culture in the countries of the European continent. This period was also marked by the emergence of an appreciation for ethics, aesthetics, and rationality.

Reflecting on what happened on the European continent a few hundred years ago, it certainly becomes a sign that change is a necessity, where what does not change is change itself. This means that every time and era continues to experience dynamic and rapid changes, especially the development of science and technology (IPTEK) which continues to roll like a wheel that continues to spin following the increasingly intense and rapidly unstoppable flow of globalization. These developments touch every aspect of life, from social, political, legal, financial, cultural, and so on.

Judges as law enforcers in an increasingly global era are required not only to master formal and material law, which is defined in the form of work professionalism. However, additional skills are also added related to the use of digital-based information and communication technology in legal and judicial services. This concept is called enlightened judges and is able to open eyes in responding to developments in the world of law and technology which always go hand in hand with each other following the currents of world globalization.

The Indonesian Judges Association (IKAHI) here has a central position in the context of realizing the world-class modern judiciary. Because IKAHI is a forum for judges throughout the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). For example, the progress of the judiciary is determined by the judge, because the judge is the captain of a judicial institution. If the analogy is that the judge is the person who judges in the court, so that between the judge and the court there is a very close and binding relationship. A place cannot be called a court if there is no judge who hears a case at that place and a person cannot be called a judge if he does not carry out the activities of adjudicating cases in court. So, in conclusion, the judge is the main character in an institution called the Court.

Judge professionalism can be realized by continuing to carry out educational and training activities in stages and continuously. However, realizing enlightened judges and being open with digital technology is not an easy matter, it takes struggle and a steep road to achieve this. So here, IKAHI needs to make a program or rule regarding the obligations of judges in studying information and communication technology. It can be in the form of short training, by grouping it according to the position class and age class of judges to specifically study digital information and communication technology guided by a Professional IT team.

This form of activity begins with program planning at the central management level, then continues with program planning at the regional and branch management levels. The purpose of this activity to realize enlightened judges is to open the eyes and horizons for judges to know the importance of information and communication technology in judicial and trial services, plus training related to technology is absolutely carried out by IKAHI on a regular basis. continuous and strategy-based to provide enlightenment to judges at all levels of the judiciary regarding world-class modern digital justice technology. The process of internalizing oneself in the form of enlightenment to the judges will provide a great benefit if it is carried out continuously and structured in one command under the central management of IKAHI.

Of the four elements of modern justice presented by Prof. Dr. Jimly Asshiddiqie, S.H. the element of enlightened judges is the most dominant element and influences other elements. Because the heart of the court is the judge itself, so it has a big role in bringing modern, digital-based and world-class justice. Therefore, at this time the most appropriate thing for judges to do is to continue to learn and open up knowledge related to information and communication technology. It can be started personally by learning through various online literature that can be obtained with internet media. This means that you do not have to wait for a program to be developed or realized by the Indonesian Judges Association (IKAHI). When every personal judge is aware of and begins to learn technology, there is a potential that in the future every court will be able to implement a world-class modern court.

When the judges have received enlightenment in terms of the use of information and communication technology, it continues on the role of the judge as the agent of change to start implementing modern judicial administration regularly with gradual steps and stages. Of course, it takes a large amount of capital to realize a modern judicial administration. However, it is not an obstacle when judges have gained enlightenment in the digital world of modern justice. At the next stage, namely to operate modern judicial administration, qualified staff or human resources in the world of information and communication technology are needed. Thus, judges can provide their knowledge and knowledge to court staff or can also find a professional IT team to provide training to court staff.

In the end, the staff or human resources in these courts will begin to be competent and capable in digital technology after the training is carried out. So as to be able to operate a modern judicial administration. Then finally, a legal information system was created to provide services to the community with a model of providing information and knowledge to people seeking justice based on information and communication technology. So that people understand how to use modern services in court. Finally, the implementation of modern justice can be carried out properly with the main basis of digitizing justice

After the realization of modern justice, an accreditation model is carried out to continue to improve the class of court services to become world class. When world-class service has been achieved, the concept of Court Excellences will follow, which will eventually become a world-class modern court.

  1. D.Conclusion

The professionalism of judges as law enforcement officers in the scope of the judiciary is an important thing. Because the judge is the last gate of the guardian of justice in this country. Judges are required not only to master formal and material law. However, it is also important to have high integrity and wisdom in deciding any case given to him. However, here judges must also have the mindset of enlightened judges to accept the development of information and communication technology which is growing rapidly in the digital and global era.

In scheduling reforms, the Supreme Court refers to the Blueprint for Judicial Reform 2010-2035, where the Blueprint was prepared using the Framework of Court Excellence approach. The will to realize a superior judiciary does not only occur in Indonesia. The international world also wants it. Therefore, courts in various parts of the world then meet, make agreements, and apply an international standard for administering the justice system. This standard is known as the International Framework for Court Excellence.

Becoming a professional judge can be realized by continuing to carry out educational and training activities in stages and continuously. However, realizing enlightened judges and being open with digital technology is not an easy matter, it takes struggle and a steep road to achieve this. So here, IKAHI (Indonesian Judges Association) needs to make a program or rule regarding the obligations of judges in studying information and communication technology. It can be in the form of short training, by grouping it according to the position class and age class of judges to specifically study digital information and communication technology guided by a Professional IT team.

This form of activity begins with program planning at the central management level, then continues with program planning at the regional and branch management levels. The purpose of this activity to realize enlightened judges is to open the eyes and horizons for judges to know the importance of information and communication technology in judicial and trial services, plus training related to technology is absolutely carried out by IKAHI on a regular basis. continuous and strategy-based to provide enlightenment to judges at all levels of the judiciary regarding world-class modern digital justice technology. The process of internalizing oneself in the form of enlightenment to the judges will provide a great benefit if it is carried out continuously and structured in one command under the central management of IKAHI.

When the judges have received enlightenment in terms of the use of information and communication technology, it continues on the role of the judge as the agent of change to start implementing modern judicial administration on a regular basis with gradual, structured and measurable steps and stages.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

RI Supreme Court. Judicial Update Blueprint 2010-2035. MARI: Jakarta. 2010
Manan, Abdul. Application of Civil Procedure Law in Religious Court. Jakarta: Kencana. 2012.
Mertokusumo, Sudikno dan A. Pilto. Chapters On Invention of Law. Jakarta: Citra Aditya Bakti. 1993
Rifa’i. Ahmad. Invention of Law by Judge. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika. 2010
Siagian, Sondang P. Human Resource Management. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia. 2000.
Suadi, Amran. Reform of the Civil Procedure Code in Indonesia: Measuring Laws in Courts Electronically. Jakarta: Kencana. 2019

Other Sources

RI Supreme Court e-Court Application, https://ecourt.mahkamahagung.go.id/Home#about accessed on Thursday 10 February 2022 at 13:45 WIB

Dr. Ridwan Mansyur, S.H., M.H. , “Judicial Reform as an Effort to Realize Court Excellences,” file:///F:/Karya%20Tulis/Artikel/LKTI%20IKAHI%202022/Mahkamah%20Agung%20Republik%20Indonesia.html accessed on Thursday 10 February 2022 at 15:45 WIB.
hukumonline.com, “Jimly Ashiddiqie: Start Modern Justice with Enlightened Judges”, Monday (23/07/2007), https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/hol17222/jimly-asshiddiqie-mulailah-peradilan-modern-dengan-ienlightened-judgesi/ accessed on Wednesday 9 February 2022 at 15:45 WIB.
Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) Online, kbbi.web.id, accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 15:55 WIB.
Reza Zaki, Era of Legal Disruption”, (October 2017) https://business-law.binus.ac.id/2017/10/29/era-disruption-hukum/, accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 12:45 WIB.
sosiologi.info. “Causes of Social Change According to 5 Experts”,  https://www.sosiologi.info/2021/11/penyebab-perubahan-sosial-menurut-5-para-ahli.html accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 14:50 WIB
tribunnews.com. “Bill Gates 'Forecast' Human Work Through the Metaverse World, This is 'Prophecy' From Outbreaks to Social Media”, Monday (12/13/2021)  https://m.tribunnews.com/new-economy/2021/12/13/bill-gates-ramal-manusia-kerja-lewat-dunia-metaverse-ini-ramalannya-dari-wabah-hingga-medsos?page=all accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 14:47 WIB

 *Artikel ini adalah peserta dalam Lomba Karya Tulis Ilmiah (LKTI) HUT IKAHI ke-69 Tahun 2022


[1] The author is a Primary Judge at the Sukamara Religious Court, Central Kalimantan, HP: 085724663650, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
[2] tribunnews.com. “Bill Gates 'Forecast' Human Work Through the Metaverse World, This is 'Prophecy' From Outbreaks to Social Media”, Monday (12/13/2021) https://m.tribunnews.com/new-economy/2021/12/13/bill-gates-ramal-manusia-kerja-lewat-dunia-metaverse-ini-ramalannya-dari-wabah-hingga-medsos?page=all accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 14:47 WIB
[3] sosiologi.info. “Causes of Social Change According to 5 Experts”, https://www.sosiologi.info/2021/11/penyebab-perubahan-sosial-menurut-5-para-ahli.html accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 14:50 WIB

[4] RI Supreme Court, Judicial Update Blueprint 2010-2035,, (MARI, Jakarta, 2010), hal. 14

[5] Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) Online, kbbi.web.id, accessed on Friday 11 February 2022 at 15:55 WIB..

[6] Sondang P. Siagian, Human Resource Management, (Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia, 2000), hal. 163

[7] Abdul Manan, Application of Civil Procedure Law in Religious Court, (Jakarta: Kencana, 2012), hal. 291

[8] Sudikno Mertokusumo dan A. Pilto, Chapters On Invention of Law, (Jakarta: Citra Aditya Bakti, 1993), hal 22

[9] Ahmad Rifa’i, Invention of Law by Judge, (Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2010), hal 26

[10] hukumonline.com, “Jimly Ashiddiqie: Start Modern Justice with Enlightened Judges”, Monday (23/07/2007)”, https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/hol17222/jimly-asshiddiqie-mulailah-peradilan-modern-dengan-ienlightened-judgesi/ accessed on Wednesday 9 February 2022 at 15:45 WIB..
[11] Reza Zaki, Era of Legal Disruption”, (October 2017)   https://business-law.binus.ac.id/2017/10/29/era-disruption-hukum/, accessed on Friday 11  February 2022 at 12:45 WIB..
[12] RI Supreme Court e-Court Application, https://ecourt.mahkamahagung.go.id/Home#about accessed on Thursday 11 February 2022 at 13:45 WIB

[13] Amran Suadi, Reform of the Civil Procedure Code in Indonesia: Measuring Laws in Courts Electronically, (Jakarta: Kencana, 2019), hal 77

[14] Dr. Ridwan Mansyur, S.H., M.H. , “Judicial Reform as an Effort to Realize Court Excellences,” file:///F:/Karya%20Tulis/Artikel/LKTI%20IKAHI%202022/Mahkamah%20Agung%20Republik%20Indonesia.html accessed on Thursday 10 February 2022 at 15:45 WIB.

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